Anschütz, Ottomar

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b. 1846 Lissa, Prussia (now Leszno, Poland) d. 1907
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German photographer, chronophotographer ana inventor.
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The son of a commercial photographer, Anschütz entered the business in 1868 and developed an interest in the process of instantaneous photography. The process was very difficult with the contemporary wet-plate process, but with the introduction of the much faster dry plates in the late 1870s he was able to make progress. Anschütz designed a focal plane shutter capable of operating at speeds up to 1/1000 of a second in 1883, and patented his design in 1888. it involved a vertically moving fabric roller-blind that worked at a fixed tension but had a slit the width of which could be adjusted to alter the exposure time. This design was adopted by C.P.Goerz, who from 1890 manufactures a number of cameras that incorporated it.
Anschütz's action pictures of flying birds and animals attracted the attention of the Prussian authorities, and in 1886 the Chamber of Deputies authorized financial support for him to continue his work, which had started at the Hanover Military Institute in October 1885. Inspired by the work of Eadweard Muybridge in America, Anschütz had set up rows of cameras whose focal-plane shutters were released in sequence by electromagnets, taking twenty-four pictures in about three-quarters of a second. He made a large number of studies of the actions of people, animals and birds, and at the Krupp artillery range at Meppen, near Essen, he recorded shells in flight. His pictures were reproduced, and favourably commented upon, in scientific and photographic journals.
To bring the pictures to the public, in 1887 he created the Electro-Tachyscope. The sequence negatives were printed as 90 x 120 mm transparencies and fixed around the circumference of a large steel disc. This was rotated in front of a spirally wound Geissler tube, which produced a momentary brilliant flash of light when a high voltage from an induction coil was applied to it, triggered by contacts on the steel disc. The flash duration, about 1/1000 of a second, was so short that it "froze" each picture as it passed the tube. The pictures succeeded each other at intervals of about 1/30 of a second, and the observer saw an apparently continuously lit moving picture. The Electro-Tachyscope was shown publicly in Berlin at the Kulturministerium from 19 to 21 March 1887; subsequently Siemens \& Halske manufactured 100 machines, which were shown throughout Europe and America in the early 1890s. From 1891 his pictures were available for the home in the form of the Tachyscope viewer, which used the principle of the zoetrope: sequence photographs were printed on long strips of thin card, perforated with narrow slots between the pictures. Placed around the circumference of a shallow cylinder and rotated, the pictures could be seen in life-like movement when viewed through the slots.
In November 1894 Anschütz displayed a projector using two picture discs with twelve images each, which through a form of Maltese cross movement were rotated intermittently and alternately while a rotating shutter allowed each picture to blend with the next so that no flicker occurred. The first public shows, given in Berlin, were on a screen 6×8 m (20×26 ft) in size. From 22 February 1895 they were shown regularly to audiences of 300 in a building on the Leipzigstrasse; they were the first projected motion pictures seen in Germany.
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Further Reading
J.Deslandes, 1966, Histoire comparée du cinéma, Vol. I, Paris. B.Coe, 1992, Muybridge and the Chronophotographers, London.
BC

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Ottomar Anschutz — Ottomar Anschütz Ottomar Anschütz. Ottomar Anschütz était un inventeur, photographe, et pionnier du monde du cinéma. Il est né le 16 mai 1846 à Leszno, en Pologne, et décéda le 30 mai 1907 à Berlin. Il a notamment inventé l Obturateur …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Anschütz — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Albert Otto Anschütz (1890–1945), deutscher Schriftsteller August Anschütz (1826–1874), deutscher Rechtshistoriker Daniela Anschütz Thoms (* 1974), deutsche Eisschnellläuferin Ernst Anschütz (1780–1861),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Anschütz — Ạnschütz,   1) Gerhard, Jurist, * Halle (Saale) 10. 1. 1867, ✝ Heidelberg 14. 4. 1948; 1899 Professor in Tübingen, 1900 sowie 1916 33 in Heidelberg, 1908 in Berlin. Anschütz hatte wesentlichen Einfluss auf die deutsche Staatsrechtslehre vor dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Ottamar Anschütz — Ottomar Anschütz Ottomar Anschütz. Ottomar Anschütz était un inventeur, photographe, et pionnier du monde du cinéma. Il est né le 16 mai 1846 à Leszno, en Pologne, et décéda le 30 mai 1907 à Berlin. Il a notamment inventé l Obturateur …   Wikipédia en Français

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